Frequent used assessment of art therapy

a research that collect thirty-five published and unpublished quantitative studies related to art therapy assessments and rating instruments were systematically analyzed.

The tools examined in the analysis are:

A Favorite Kind of Day (AFKOD);

the Bird’s Nest Drawing (BND);

the Bridge Drawing;

the Diagnostic Drawing Series (DDS),

the Child Diagnostic Drawing Series (CDDS);

and the Person Picking an Apple from a Tree (PPAT).

 

Rating instruments are also investigated,

including the Descriptive Assessment of Psychiatric Art (DAPA),

the DDS Rating Guide and Drawing Analysis Form (DAF),

and the Formal Elements Art Therapy Scale (FEATS).

 

TWO POPULAR ART THERAPY ASSESSMENTS AND THEIR CLINICAL APPLICATIONS: THE DDS AND THE PPAT

The Diagnostic Drawing Series (DDS) (Cohen, Hammer, & Singer, 1988) The DDS s a three-picture art interview that was developed in 1982 by art therapists

It can be administered individually and in groups. Materials are: 18” x 24” white 60 lb or 70 lb drawing paper that has a slight tooth or texture; standard 12 pack of Alphacolor square chalk pastels (unwrapped) in North America; Faber Castell elsewhere. DDS Directives (Cohen & Mills, 2000): 1)

Free Picture:“Make a picture with these materials.” This is the unstructured task of the Series. It typically reveals a manifestation of the client’s defense system (i.e., the amount and type of information the patient is initially willing to share [Feder & Feder, 1998]) 2) Tree Picture: “Draw a picture of a tree.” (NB: even if a tree was drawn in the first picture.) This is the structured task of the Series. Deemed to be non-threatening subject (Feder & Feder, 1998). 3) Feeling Picture: “Make a picture of how you’re feeling using lines, shapes, and colors.” This is a semi- structured task, it asks the client to communicate about his/her affective state directly, as well as to represent it in abstract form. “Patients are rarely fooled by the artifice of projective tests, which are now part of our popular culture. If we want to know about the patient’s experience or self concept, why not simply ask?” (Cohen, Mills, & Kijak, 1994)

 

The Person Picking an Apple From a Tree (PPAT) (Gantt, 1990) This assessment consists of one drawing that can be administered in an individual or group art therapy session (Arrington, 1992). The client is asked to “Draw a picture of a person picking an apple from a tree.” The materials include one piece of 12 by 18 inch white drawing paper and a set of 12 Mr. Sketch scented felt-tip markers. The drawings are rated with the Formal Elements Art Therapy Scale (FEATS) manual (Gantt & Tabone, 1998).

The PPAT drawing was first described by Viktor Lowenfeld (1939, 1947) in a study he conducted on children’s use of space in art. His instructions were detailed: “You are under an apple tree. On one of its lower branches you see an apple that you particularly admire and that you would like to have. You stretch out your hand to pick the apple, but your reach is a little short. Then you make a great effort and get the apple after all. Now you have it and enjoy eating it. Draw yourself as you are taking the apple off the tree” (1947, pp. 75-76). Little else has been written about this drawing. Greg Furth included examples in his book The Secret World of Drawings (1988, p. 86-88) but did not discuss his reason for using it.

Gantt and Tabone (1998) credit art therapist Tally Tripp for bringing the idea of the PPAT to Washington, DC from Georgia. Ta lly had worked with a Georgia art therapist who used the PPAT frequently.

 

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The method note for art therapy

A SYSTEMATIC ANALYSIS OF ART THERAPY ASSESSMENT AND RATING INSTRUMENT LITERATURE

By DONNA J. BETTS

Art Therapy Assessment Instruments Included in the Systematic Analysis

Corresponding Standardized Rating System

Bird’s Nest Drawing (BND) (Kaiser, 1993)

Attachment Rating Scale (Kaiser, 1993)

Bridge Drawing (Hays & Lyons, 1981)

12 variables assembled by authors (informal)

Diagnostic Drawing Series (DDS) (Cohen, Hammer & Singer, 1988)

Drawing Analysis Form; Content Checklist (Cohen, 1985/1994)

A Favorite Kind of Day (Manning Rauch, 1987)

Aggression Depicted in the AFKD Rating Instrument (A three-item checklist) (Manning Rauch, 1987)

Person Picking an Apple From a Tree (PPAT)

Formal Elements Art Therapy Scale (FEATS) (Gantt & Tabone, 1998)

Art Therapy Assessment Instruments

Corresponding Rating System

Arrington Visual Preference Test (AVPT)

(Dorris Arrington)

Art Therapy-Projective Imagery Assessment (AT- PIA) (EVMS)

(EVMS)

Dot-to-Dot

Draw-A-Village Task (DAV)

Draw-Yourself Task (DYT)

Face Stimulus Assessment (FSA) (Betts, 2003)

FSA Rating Guidelines (Betts, 2003)

Favorite Place Drawings

Levick Emotional and Cognitive Art Therapy Assessment (LECATA) (Levick)

(Myra Levick, 2001)

Mandala Assessment Research Instrument (MARI) Card Test (Kellogg)

Manual containing possible interpretations

Ulman Personality Assessment Procedure (UPAP) (Ulman)

A checklist

Stand-Alone Rating Systems

Descriptive Assessment for Psychiatric Art (DAPA)

Sheppard Pratt Art Rating Scale (SPAR) (Shoemaker-Beal, 1977; Bergland & Moore Gonzalez, 1993)

Questionnaire NBS (Elbing & Hacking, 2001) for objective picture criteria; Semantic Differential (Simmat, 1969) for contextual-affective picture criteria.

Unnamed 18-item rating scale (with 4 additional color-related test items) (Wadlington & McWhinnie, 1973)

Class note: 09/12 studio

To help documentation of the topic being discussed.

Socio gram 
Socio matrix – in science and design
look at twitter connection- you are writing to a community which is big
follower and retwitt
– How important this is ?
– Evaluate value
e.g.  What to use to organize app?
finding a person obsess with app.
everyone goes to the person when same problem/statement occur.
only the people participate is inside
opinion leader ship- e.g help people on internet
influence MAP
Correlation – If you can develop a map that is narrative story
my imagination: Walking on document seeing donut shop go inside and grab a bite on apple pie
there are different ways
acknowledge all the topic multiple research
Primary research
e.g.  Maybe my thesis is about ________
a narrative of description
how many groups can participate make the narrative happen?
e.g. Why we talk about food famine instead of food security?
Can it be another narrative way?
you should build _____
-How you can play with the idea of your topic?
It’s the end product and start product.
how is audience being an exacutive of these sort of ___?
-how do you scale it in a reasonable way to control it?
Or I do not need to control it
material description
It could be useful for _____?
———————————————————————-
-How do we create thing facilitate success?
e.g. What is twitter?
what does it used for
I want to faciliate a technology to move a force
Know that different angle
Problem is too big
e.g. software prgromer
hard to get consumer feedback
they could not know but google can have that data
———————————————————————-
– How do make sth work better more beautiful
– how to change the design of button
– how do I redesign remote control
The result is about pressing button
specular
How new Technology can change next generation?
… look at the past and now … preserve the experience of disneyland
Can design change the world? no
why is the world need to be saved in the first place
How to find the real problem in our life?
We can do it in logical ;conceptual; technical
one aspect at one time.
One project you can faciliate
button
How do we design?
How do we exacute?
space
Thesis take you to different places
– how do we designer illuminate these issue to be meaningful?
Design interaction interviewing
people
Moggridge, Bill
You develop personal narrative
ask information as then make it go
Assume you know it and then
What you can think about something somebody said
How do interciew 100 people
how do I speak only 5 people
Who is the one really important and why
Who kill design 2007
how we change or prove how do we
limbic frustration
huge conversation
we are as designer as staststic as solution as paradigm program we areactually i a way systm
we are before the weay
system  binary
that is crumbling
we are soon cross binary world
designer do ____ science do_______
The things we are actually develop now – How do we
Praticing how do we start to do
how is this make my thsis thicker and richer
Da Vinci – perfect person for DT
What is art
what is science what can bring technology
Think about renosanuce  Renaissance
What does techonology to tamper with the field of design ?
Seeing Science and design as discipline
How technology is reshaping where we fit how we fit
the work of many people productive
e.g Make sure braking the law getting rested is absolute

Conversation summary-

Day 09/12 Studio Talk
Thesis- framing problem yourself.
Module is a journey that provide chances getting lost and enjoy the lost in order to find something new on research.

It gives structure of whole thesis
Prototype  means we make something .Prototype can be different media.
Using Dialectic method – Learn the two thing , and form an argument that can solve the disagreement.
 
TIPS
Everyday, list on what should I do next do the other day
 
Phrase Clarification
Community  e.g. acm.  Posses a related or common thing that fit in the same category but not necessary to interact.
Club. – Small group meet regularly.  Affinity… share something they like in common
Communication design – e.g street Sign and I love NY logoExample mentioned
The fun theory. Social intervention.
Persuasive design/Behavior changes.

Progress
frame a problem- Thesis is focus on series of idea.

Book- (Architecture) Design like I give a damn
Find five problem.
Art Therapy –
among school, people, institute who use it.
As many as what it can be
For what kind of people – psyche  trauma cancer.
Some said it fake. make an argument that is plausible to explain.
Prototype is related to art therapy. Method can varied. iPhone thumb therapy.

Class Collaboration

During the class we (group with Rachel and Vivian) list a coule possible related domain of the interest, here I record the first draft.
Social Community/ Communication design / Video game / web media/ environmental issue/ Urban research/ Education develop creativity/ Installation sculpture in public space/Printing/ journalism /activism art
After organized:
1. Social – community –   journalism
                                        –   education
                                        –   urban research
+
2. Communication design –   design –game
1&2 } Activism art
Group of people that should be looking
–           census board ur  https://ask.census.gov/
–           congress library  archives  -DC http://www.loc.gov/index.html
–           Bureau of land management UR http://www.blm.gov/wo/st/en.html
–           SIGGRAPH
–           DISC Designing interactive System
–           Mozilla Badge foundation for education http://blog.mozilla.org/blog/2011/09/15/openbadges/
–           Institute of play http://www.instituteofplay.org/about/context/
–           play tech
–           pet Lab
–           Katie Sala
–           Terese Villa ur busharck
–           MFA DT Lisa stark/ Melanie / Romero / Katherine
–           fun Theory http://www.thefuntheory.com/
–           art play http://artplayasc.org/
Related reading :
–           Just Design: socially conscious Design for critical causes by Christophers Simmons
–        Designing for the Social Change by Andrew Shea